March 21, 2017

The Painful Quest for Truth

From the beginning of humankind, we have sought for the truth. We want to know the answers to those deep questions about life and search through science, religion, philosophy, and society. God wants us to ask the tough questions because it builds our faith. He will answer our questions...but in different times or ways then we expect.

Satan intervenes during our quest with half-truths, flattering words, distractions, and lies. He yearns to discourage us when we face troubling questions and moral dilemmas.

We then have a choice of where and how we search for the truth.
"The Serpent and Eve Banner" by Circe Denyer

The First Desire for Truth & Knowledge

In the Garden of Eden, God imparted eternal truth and knowledge to Adam and Eve. This included the plan to return to Heavenly Father and to be like Him. However, Adam and Eve's paradise--which literally means to form walls around--soon became a prison. Particularly, this commandment of warning and choice halted their progress:
Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat, But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it, nevertheless, thou mayest choose for thyself, for it is given unto thee; but, remember that I forbid it, for in the day thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die (emphasis added; Moses 3:16-17).

Eve desired more knowledge to be like God as he had taught her. And she desired to follow every commandment to multiply and replenish the earth. Thus, Eve recognized truth--but not the lie yet--in Satan's half-truth about the forbidden fruit:
"Ye shall surely not die: For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as the gods, knowing good from evil" (emphasis added; Genesis 3:4-5).
Adam and Eve chose to not heed God's warning, but follow the other commandments. They fell on the double-edged sword of seeking knowledge, experiencing sorrow and joy. Their fall led to our existence (see 2 Ne. 2:25).

Paradoxically, God cast Adam and Eve out on their journey back to Him.

Historical Quests for Truth

Questioning aspects of religion has led to many breakthroughs throughout history. The Bible records many of the answers to spiritual questions from Adam to Paul.

According to LDS belief, Jesus Christ's entire church collapsed when His apostles died. Only records remained, but no Priesthood authority. A few hundred years later, Catholicism and Orthodoxy took shape with parts of the truth intact.

Many questioned the power and doctrine of Roman Catholicism (which led to eventual change in Catholicism).

Martin Luther questioned the doctrine of indulgences and his 99 points. The Baptists questioned how baptism should really take place. Anne Boleyn convinced Henry VIII to break from Catholicism, though he used it only for his selfish desires.

The Separatists, pilgrims, suffered because of their quest for knowledge outside of the Church of England. Eventually, these questions improved Catholicism itself. Many more questioned practices found in religion, and the contradictions in the Bible.

During the Second Awakening in America, a 14-year-old boy Joseph Smith was on a quest for spiritual knowledge. He received an answer that no church was true, which wasn't what he expected at all!

I believe Jesus Christ restored His Church through Joseph Smith. With each question Joseph Smith had, he received answers (whether he liked the outcome or not, such as plural marriage).

In my church, Joseph Smith's questions led to the restoration of the priesthood, temple ordinances, Book of Mormon: Another Testament of Jesus Christ. He and others made mistakes along the way because they had no predecessors to rely on.

Other prophets received revelation about other aspects. Of great concern was why the black men weren't allowed to have the Priesthood. Joseph Smith had ordained a few black men to the Priesthood, but the ordinations stopped after his martyrdom. After Brigham Young, subsequent prophets asked when the Priesthood would be available to all men, no matter their color. The answer came in 1978 to Spencer W. Kimball and the Apostles. This quest for truth lasted for over 100 years. For more information, read this article.

Satan Manipulates Our Desire for Truth

Satan manipulates our drive for knowledge with half-truths, philosophies of men, and knowledge for knowledge sake. He drives us into whatever wind of doctrine that distracts us from the whole truth of God. We get stuck on one passion and neglect the rest. He seeds doubt and casts out faith.

We sometimes search for truth from questionable sources. Instead of searching for answers from the source, we go to the opposition's camp. We can become swamped with so much useless knowledge, we never attain the highest truths of existence.

How do We Receive Answers?

First, we need to have faith to seek eternal truth. Without the foundation of faith, we are blown off course. We must hold on to what we know until we find the other answers we seek.

Jesus Christ told Oliver Cowdery during the restoration of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, "you must study it out in your mind" (D&C 9:8). The Lord wants us to use our brains and hearts to find answers. This inherently means to ask questions.

We prepare ourselves for an answer when we pray and clear our minds. Then we listen for answers. We allow the quiet to settle upon us.

How do we know if something is true? When the Holy Ghost speaks peace to our hearts and our minds (D&C 8:2).

The Answers that Never Come

I have had questions that sometimes I don't have a satisfactory answer to. I try to hold on to what I do know. Some answers remain for eternity.

I wonder why the women don't have the priesthood in the LDS faith. I have some answers, but mostly more questions. I read Sheri L. Dew's book Women and the Priesthood, which gave me some answers. When men would say that she didn't have the Priesthood in her home, Sheri Dew responded that she had access to the Priesthood in her home through her baptismal and temple covenants. 

I have access to the Priesthood authority of God when I keep my baptismal and temple covenants. I can't rely on my husband or any other Priesthood holder to be present all the time. On the other hand, a man alone cannot give himself a Priesthood blessing. Another Priesthood holder has to do it.

What do women have that correlates with the Priesthood? I've concluded that it is not motherhood, but service. We have an authority that is veiled from the world.

I wonder why some struggle with same-sex attraction and gender dysphoria. My thoughts are that it is an affliction similar to bipolar, but it does throw in a lot of kinks. The jury is still out.

Some answers will only come in the eternities. In the meantime, I hold on to what I know. Like science, spirituality is a lifetime exploration that adjusts to new discoveries.

I Compare Myself to "Normal"

Via Public Domain Photos
My husband said that I probably had more trouble with a situation over the last two weeks because of my bipolar. It exacerbates my emotions.

Yea, I didn't take that kindly. My thought was, "I'm a crazy witch/*itch."

I had a fit of inner temper and some outer temper at him. I cried.

I try to separate "normal" emotion from "bipolar" emotion all the time. I don't know which is which. So, I compare myself to "normal."

I asked my husband, "What is normal?"

He said that we consider "normal" as perfect so it is an unfair comparison. We compare ourselves to an impossible standard that doesn't exist.

However, I still wonder what my emotions would be like without bipolar.

I wrote this two weeks ago.

March 05, 2017

Managing Bipolar this Pregnancy

I wrote this after the Orlando shooting last June. I never posted this, I don't know why I didn't immediately. The next day, my peace waned.

At my first ultrasound, the maternal fetal medicine doctor said that pregnant women urinate or metabolize their medication faster during the third trimester of pregnancy. She suggested I visit my psychiatrist before 26 weeks.

My family practice doctor suggested I see the psychiatrist too. He said the pregnancy and medication guidelines have changed. There are no more pregnancy medication categories like X will kill the baby. Each medication has individual guidelines. Whatever medication keeps the mother stable and won't harm the baby. Some medicines just require extra folic acid to prevent cleft palate.

I set up the psychiatric appointment with the expectation that I would need more medication. I felt anxiety over national, local, and family events before going in.

I sought peace about these events. I reminded myself that I am not in control of the world. God is closer than we know. He is watching out for us. My mind grasped the principle of agency. God respects our agency to the point that he lets people do bad things...and good things. Good can only exist in opposition of bad.

So facing my stresses, I walked into my appointment. My psychiatrist surprised me when she said I seemed at peace and relaxed. That I was rolling with the punches...must be the third boy. She kept me on the same dosages. Really? I'm not worse. I'm even doing better?

Truthfully, I feel more at peace even though politics and other events concern me. But I can only do what I can do. I can only influence toward good. Opinions are just opinions. The serenity prayer put me at ease:
God grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change; courage to change the things I can; and wisdom to know the difference.
I concentrate on the basics of my spiritual, mental, and physical health. Basically, I go to bed on time more often!

Two nights ago, I couldn't fall asleep and cried that morning. I'm done with being sweaty, uncomfortable, nauseous, and just plain pregnant. My head hurt with congestion and aches from a cold. I wanted my mom! I want the baby OUT.

My husband stayed home that day.

My home is more at peace since my husband feels more at peace too. He has sought for peace with his anxieties. He has made more progress over the past year. We just keep swimming.

I expect my boys to help out. They need to clean some before they can get on the computer. Luckily, two of them are old enough to do harder chores, carry laundry, and capture their toddler brother. Since I can't bend, they are my benders! Since I can't chase a toddler, they are my chasers!

I "called in the cavalry" for my oldest to capture his brother, and now he gladly says he will "call in the cavalry."

My boys complain some, don't always do what I ask, and other times jump at the chance to help. They choose what to do, and luckily, they usually they help out. I hope it's because of the greater peace we strive for in our home.

I go to counseling every 5-8 weeks. My insurance changed, so now I'm in the process of finding a new counselor. I like my previous counselor. I thought of paying the full price for each session, which I did for three months, but I couldn't keep up with that. It has taken me four months to finally call a new counselor.

January 31, 2017

Bored But Busy While Feeding

"Sheep Feeding Lambs" by Vera Kratochvil
With an infant, I get bored while bottle-feeding him for 2-3 hours a day. However, I am stuck in one position. My brain roams around in circles while one hand holds a bottle and the other holds a book or my phone. There's only so much smiling at my kid I can do.

The fourth boy is the slowest eater of all my boys.

I have found a few things I can do while bottle-feeding: anything my smart phone can do, reading, watching TV, talking, ineffectively commanding my troop of boys, and eating.

On my smart phone, I check email, text, thumb through Facebook and Twitter, read online articles, and play games. But I can't type long comments or blog posts or create memes easily on my phone. I am so limited!

I can't stop my toddler from pouring/spilling milk or tossing everything off tall furniture. It is playtime for the third when I feed the fourth. When I am free, I am not free. I chase the other three and do chores.

I really fall into trouble thumbing through Facebook and Twitter. My brain explodes with the cultural and political events of the day. Do I read that article? Do I respond to that person's comment?

Oh, the trouble I could stir!

I don't like offending others, and I don't like always agreeing either. I have friends and family who are polar opposites on the political spectrum. Besides, I don't want to look stupid. Quite the paradox.

My former counselor wondered at how many politically-minded Facebook friends and family I have. Yes, you all are! And then you have to take a Facebook/Twitter break too like me.

Thus, I may start an alternative facts Twitter or Facebook account where I only deal in politics and current events. Have a separate space for the controversial.

Then I think of the businesses or jobs I could start: a used clothing store, writing, teaching English online at ridiculously early hours, a kids' language exchange program, a homeless shelter, earn my Master's degree, ad infinitum.

I look forward to when my infant can feed himself. Then I will have my hands free--to catch the fourth as he crawls away.

March 17, 2016

For My Husband--the Blessings of Pregnancy

"Pregnancy" by Lisa Runnels
My husband begged me if there was anything I thought was positive about pregnancy. Well, let's see...I have a baby come out in 9 months. Isn't that the point?

He said I enjoyed feeling the baby move inside me with the other pregnancies. Yes, and that was about it.

So for my husband--I will write the positives of pregnancy.

Positive Pregnancy Experiences

  1. I can get pregnant. I feel bad that other women struggle for years with infertility. I don't know what to say to them because the longest I've ever waited is 10 months to get pregnant. 
  2. I can feel the baby move...and sit on my bladder.
  3. I have increased saliva production that helps my teeth not rot as fast from stomach acid and the baby absorbing the nutrients from my teeth. The drool just pools on my pillow.
  4. I have a heightened sniffer. I can tell my toddler's diaper is filthy from a room away. Then I ask my husband to change it. He never complains about changing them. I can smell my human body.
  5. My family jumps out of my way when I start gagging. I've never seen my oldest move so fast. Maybe that's what I should do when my boys refuse to get off the computer.
  6. I know all the intricacies of the toilet bowl and the right trajectory to avoid spills.
  7. I get in my sit-ups when I vomit regularly throughout all my pregnancies. I lost 16 pounds with my first (and gained it back). I haven't gained weight so far this pregnancy.
So I would say the actual positive experiences happen after the baby is born. I can bend again. I can eat a normal amount. I'm full for longer than 30 minutes. I can stand the smell of my family's bodies again. I can run. I can breathe deeper. I have energy again even if I am sleep deprived.

Then I enjoy the baby and pray for the next year to go slow but to go real fast. I like my sleep. I like their independence.

February 18, 2016

The Challenges of Going to Disneyland

"Roller Coaster at the Park" by Alex Grichenko
My husband's work sent a group of employees who were "finishers" to Disneyland with a guest. They pick someone from each work team and his work team has only 8 people. Everyone takes turns on his small development team. If his work hadn't paid for everything, we wouldn't have gone anywhere.

My husband and I debated whether he should take our oldest son or if I should go. We decided I would go, so we could have an 10th anniversary trip six months after the event.

Finding Childcare

My mother-in-law flew out to take care of our boys, but she wasn't coming until 15 hours after we left. Who could I find to watch my boys for 15 hours?

It took several weeks talking with friends and family to finalize that 15 hours of care. I wanted someone who I trusted absolutely (and could drive) because my husband and I would be too far away to take care of any problems. We found two people, but they had to switch the boys from one house to another. The switch worried me because of several factors.

In the meantime, I chewed my nails to the quick and pulled on hangnails. (I had an infection develop from it.) Just thinking of this, I feel stress again.

Well, after we left everything went mostly fine. The switch went off without a hitch. Once Grandma came, I stopped worrying about my kids. Grandmas are great!

Separation Anxiety

Two days before we left for Disneyland, my oldest son had an upset stomach and stayed home from school. He seemed genuinely sick because he lay on the couch for 5 hours and never asked to get on the computer. He felt better later in the day when he was surrounded with family.

The next morning he woke with an upset stomach again. At that point, I was ready to take him to school. He'd been fine the night before.

Suddenly an idea clicked in my brain. He felt sick because of separation anxiety (and jealousy). I proposed Dad spend the day with him (and the two other boys).

The next morning, my son reluctantly let us drop him off at the babysitter's house. The two other boys did just fine.

At the airport, the school called and put on my crying son. We told him he needed to do his best to stay at school and everything would be fine. We were already checked in at the airport.

Over video chat that night, my oldest wouldn't speak to us. He was too mad and too jealous. Yet he wanted to stay in contact. Emotions cause such ironic actions.

What's Continental Breakfast?

Five-star hotels--like the Disney Grand Californian--provide continental breakfast, right? No, they don't. For all you pay, they can't provide a breakfast that a two-star hotel would! They assume only rich people go there. We ain't rich--but we ain't poor.

We figured the gift cards from my husband's work would cover our meals with some left over for souvenirs. First place we stop for brunch, we had to rethink the costs. 

We entered the first restaurant in the hotel, The Storyteller's Cafe. The hostess said $31, but we weren't sure. We had the breakfast buffet, unsure how much we'd have to pay. I calculated $62 plus tip, while my husband figured it was $31 for both of us. Yea, it was $62+.

At this rate, we may not be able to cover all our food expenses with the gift cards only useful at Disneyland (not at Downtown Disney). We only had walking access to dining in the parks and hotel. The hotel room had no microwave or fridge. No, you can't make your own meals easily.

Once we entered the park, we found other places only cost $10-$15 per meal. We could afford to eat! The second day we found a snacks place tucked out of sight at the hotel. I wonder why it's the furthest place to walk to get food...

We bought peanut butter, jelly, and bread, which fed us for two meals and snacks. The gift cards covered our food expenses and a few souvenirs.

Wonderful Weekdays!

On Thursday, we walked right into the Grand California Adventure and had no wait to get on the River Run and a few other rides.

We wandered around to other rides and places. My husband got a fast pass to the Cars Race ride for later the night. Fun!

For some insane reason, I proposed we go on California Soarin' roller coaster. My husband and I screamed almost the whole time. I shut my eyes on the loop. I could fall out!

My husband felt comfortable on the loop because he knew gravity would keep us in. I technically know this, but that still doesn't compute when I'm afraid I may pee my pants. He hated the descents and the time getting to it. A picture that we may or may not get from Disney's website tells the story.

The anticipation is worse than the realization.

I was more worried on Soarin' Over California because my feet had nowhere to touch. I wanted a roller coaster again!

Friday morning we went to Disneyland and I felt crowded until the afternoon came. It was so peaceful before.

On the Star Tours ride, I didn't secure a water bottle. It rolled around my feet while I tried to keep it near me. Yea, right.

Don't Rain on My Parade!

Please, please rain on every single dratted Disney parade at dinnertime and nighttime. I used to love parades as a child and teenager, but times change. I want to go from point A to point B without detouring to Point Z. Actually, Disney should have better routes to get around parades!

On Friday night, my husband and I soaked ourselves on Splash Mountain and had to return to the hotel to change before his work dinner. (That picture was even more frightening than California Soarin'). Heading to the restaurant in California Adventures, we walked into a parade. We circled around but hit it again. We waited 15 minutes to cross the street.

Luckily, dinner waited until after the parade. I ate a salad with suspicious textured ingredients, but I couldn't see it in the low light of the restaurant.

We had a fast pass to the Indiana Jones ride for 8:25 pm to 9:25 pm. After dinner, we went back to the hotel room and then headed to Disneyland.

We get in and the color parade is going on. At the entrance we need to go left, but we are forced to go to the right. The way was clear, but "cast members" blocked the way. I griped while my husband took photos.

He said, "We might as well enjoy it." 

Never say that to a sleep-deprived woman whose feet hurt from standing in lines all day.

The parade ended and we could move forward, but on the wrong side of Main Street. All we needed to do was cross the street! We were able to go to the other side when cast members directed us the other way--the opposite direction of the ride.

Magical fireworks bloomed over the castle. We saw it from all angles as we circled around it only to run into more ropes and "cast members."

Somehow we found our way to the ride an hour later. I was cursing parades and fireworks heartily by now. Yes, they are magical for some. Open up the way across the street!

I was disappointed in the Indiana Jones ride when I realized it wasn't much of a roller coaster ride. For some reason, I craved the pit and scare in the stomach. Oh the thrills.

When we exited the ride, a "cast member" announced a parade in 15 minutes. I ran as fast as my sore feet could carry me to the exit.

Go Cougars

I wore a BYU shirt at Disneyland, but I felt it was such a subtle symbol. The shirt only has a Y in gemstones on a dark background. (I am not a sports fan, just showing where I graduated from.) I hoped to feel some solidarity with others.

Walking through Adventureland, a pirate cast member stage whispered "Go Cougars!"

My husband didn't get what the pirate said.

I have one regret though. I wish my family and had BYU-Idaho shirts since that's where we lived for five years while my husband attended. I have more Idaho pride despite my two years at the Y.

Home Glorious Home

I was ecstatic to go home. My own bed, pillow, and my boys. Food in a fridge and I can cook my own food. Home is more magical than Disneyland.

December 19, 2015

Translation of ‘Anoint’ in the King James Bible: Polysemy in Metaphor

Almost a decade ago, I wrote a research paper on the translation of 'anoint' for my Early Modern English class at BYU. I have adapted this paper to better fit a blog entry and I've grown as a writer in that decade. Enjoy!

"Bible Text" by Petr Kratochvil

A Portrait

Royalty commissioned a portrait of themselves upon their anointing to the crown. One Hebrew sense of ‘anoint’ signifies ‘to paint’ and another sense from Hebrew is ‘to consecrate.’

My purpose is to follow this ancient tradition in painting a portrait of the Anointed King of Righteousness through the various senses of ‘anoint’ from the languages the King James translators referred to: Greek, Hebrew, and English.

My sources include the Bible, Bible Dictionary, Oxford English Dictionary, Authorized Version foreword, and other relevant texts. Word Cruncher assisted me in discovering the various senses and translations of ‘anoint’ employed in the Bible.

History of the Translation of English Bibles

The first English biblical translations began under the Anglo-Saxon King Alfred during the Old English period. These translations probably read similar to Beowulf, since King Alfred facilitated many translations into the West Saxon dialect. Others made short translations mostly from Psalms, including King Alfred, while others made English glosses (side notes) in Latin Bibles (Butterworth 22-23).

Then a period of darkness halted most translation until the 1380s when Wycliffe soon realized that any religious authority lay in the Bible and not the priests. He stated: “it helpeth Christian men to study the Gospel in that tongue in which they know best Christ’s sentence” (Craigie, et. al. 135-138). Wycliffe undertook this feat relying upon the Hebrew and the Greek translations instead of the Latin translations (Craigie, et. al. 135-138).

During Henry the VIII’s reign, more Protestant translations propped themselves on top of the last. Since he vacillated from one opinion to another depending on who annoyed him the most at a particular time, translators remained wary of his mood (Worth 13). He had good reason to fear a vernacular translation “for the zeal of some knew no bounds and sometimes caused unpleasant public disturbances” (Daiches 45).

Although Henry the VIII served like a swaying vessel, overall his reign proved favorable. First, he separated England from papal power. Second, his occasional Protestant leaning tenably encouraged more liberal translation philosophies (Worth 13).

Tyndale labored on his translation under Henry’s constant uncertainty, yet Tyndale continued. He adopted Wycliffe’s philosophy toward vernacular translation:

“I defie the Pope and all his lawes, if God spare my lyfe ere many yeares, I wyl cause a boye that dryveth [the] plough, shall knowe more of the scripture than thou doest” (Daiches 2).

Tyndale had few qualifications according to modern standards to translate from Hebrew to English, yet he accomplished a literary masterpiece using only “primitive Hebrew grammars and dictionaries” (Worth 38).

King Henry’s daughters, Mary and Elizabeth, separately regarded translation quite differently. Queen Mary banned any English biblical translation and any English Bibles being used in Church. Queen Elizabeth had to tread carefully due to Queen Mary of Scots, yet she maintained amiable relations with her nephew King James. Although little translation progress happened under Queen Elizabeth, she instilled political neutrality that enabled James to authorize the next version.

Another precursor included the Rhemes Bible that adhered more to a verbatim translation from Latin. As a result, “Rhemes provoked the production of a better version […] the Authorized or King James appeared” (Sheahan 124).

King James Translation

King James approved the list of translators in 1604, including a wide spectrum of religious representatives (Worth 151-52).

Miles Smith stated the overall attitude of the translators as “greater in other men[']s eyes then in their own […] that sought the truth rather then their own praise” (Butterworth 243).

The translators followed these guidelines: non-verbatim translation enabling a smoother and clearer text; marginal notes explaining alternative translations; and modest cross references enabling wider and holistic comprehension. The translators relied heavily on the Tyndale Bible. Scholars estimate that 80 to 90 percent of the King James Bible originates from the Tyndale Bible (Worth 157).

Translations of Anoint

Most of the original Greek and Hebrew words specifically mean ‘anoint', but not all. These other words share senses with words having the ‘anoint’ sense; therefore, they are included.

The Anointed One

Three words—bēn, māshîach, and Christós—all signify the Anointed One. Bēn is an extension meaning a son who is an anointed one. The Jews call the role Māshîach; the Greeks call the role Christós.

The Modern English equivalents are Messiah and Christ. Before Catholicism introduced Latin Christus from Greek khristos, the Old English term was Hæland "healer, savior" ("Christ" Online Etymological Dictionary).

Completion & Wholeness

Across Hebrew and Greek, several lexemes—téleios, teleióō, ml’, mālā’, millu’, and millû’îm—signify senses such as completion or wholeness. These lexemes represent the growth toward perfection.

We learn line upon line, grace to grace. Grace reveals light and truth in each step (See 2 Ne 28:30). Furthermore, téleois implies phases in maturation, such as developing into full age physically, intellectually, and spiritually.

Similarly, the scriptures recount as Jesus grew from grace to grace, line upon line. He completed each step by obeying eternal truths. When he had completed every jot and tittle, he cried out, “It is finished” (John 19:30).

In the Book of Mormon, Nephi changed from a boy to a man when he listened then obeyed the Holy Ghost’s voice. He listened to the prompting to kill Laban then obeyed (ml’; see 1 Ne 2:164:18, 31).


The Hebrew root zayith and Greek roots elaía, élaion and aleíphō include oil and its extensions: the olive fruit, branch, and tree.

Jesus Christ or his Church is often compared to a tree (see Romans 11 and Jacob 5). The olive tree is especially fitting since it is a common tree in Israel. It provides the staple of olive oil.

Christ’s Atonement represents the roots of the gospel. Without the Atonement, the plan of happiness would be null. The roots support the tree or the Church.

The branches include the groups of saints spread around the world. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints uses the literal term branch to describe a small group of members. Like a wooden pole holding up a tent, a stake is a larger group of wards and branches.

Then “ye shall know them by their fruits” (Matthew 7:16). Christ’s Atonement yields the delicious fruit when the saints repent. Therefore, we may know Christ through our “fruit meet for repentance” (Matthew 3:8).

The oil is always being acted upon, even in the causative verb phrases: to rub oil, to smear oil, to make oil, to press oil, and to consecrate oil. The King James team translated these verbs from the Hebrew words mėshach, shemen and tshr. Likewise, the sins and sufferings of mankind pressed the blood from Christ’s flesh thus consecrating his suffering on Mount Olivet, or in the Garden of Gethsemane ("Gethsemane" Online Etymological Dictionary).

To Sanctify

Another causative phrase is to sanctify, or the Hebrew causative phrase is qdhsh. The oil that anoints also sanctifies, heals, and cleans. 

Heavenly Father anointed Christ for the purpose of saving us from our sins. Through this event, the Holy Ghost can cleanse and sanctify us if we repent. 

One causative phrase comes from dshn signifies to take or remove ashes. Formerly, people made lye soap from ashes. As a result, to take or remove the ashes, or lye soap, applies the Atonement then wipes the sins away.


Several Hebrew roots—zayith, yitshār, tshr, and shmn—have senses indicating terms of light, such as, to glisten, to shine, illuminating oil. Each of these senses is about making or spreading oil. 

These senses create an analogy of making our own light shine for others to see (See Matthew 5:16). Anointing is the second step in cleansing; therefore, we must be made clean before we can shine--like buffing silver. Thus we can shine too.

Outspread Wings

One Hebrew root—mimshāch—has the sense of outspread wings and expansion. In Luke 13:34, Jesus compares himself: "how often would I have gathered thy children together, as a hen doth gather her brood under her wings..." (emphasis added). He has healing in his wings (3 Ne 25:2). His wing expansion covers all pains, sins, sicknesses, and afflictions (Alma 7:11). Additionally, Christ expands our “thoughts as upon eagle’s wings” (D&C 124: 99).

Moses lifted up a serpent entwined staff that if the children of Israel merely looked at, it would heal them from the fiery, flying serpents' venom (Numbers 21:8). The flying aspect evokes the image of wings.

In the Book of Mormon, Nephi, grandson of Helaman, likened Moses' action: "Yea, did [Moses] not bear record that the Son of God should come? And as he lifted up the brazen serpent in the wilderness, even so shall he be lifted up who should come" (Helaman 8:14). Thus, this is a symbol of healing in Jesus' wings.

The fiery, flying serpent may be linked to the Mesoamerican Feathered Serpent, Quetzalcoatl. Quetzalcoatl (and many namesakes) have similarities to Jesus Christ, but may have been twisted over time. Diane E. Wirth explains this complex matter in her article "Quetzalcoatl, the Maya Maize God, and Jesus Christ."

In An Instinct for Dragons, anthropologist David E. Jones links the Feathered Serpent with dragon symbols from many world cultures, including the Chinese dragon. After teaching English in China, I believe that the dragon may be a symbol of Jesus Christ in Chinese culture and other cultures.

After all, Jesus Christ talked of "other sheep" in his fold to the Jews (John 10:16). When Jesus Christ visited the Americas, he stated that they are his "other sheep" and that their are more "sheep" on earth (3 Ne 15:17). The symbol of the dragon's wings spans the world's cultures where "other sheep" dwell.


The King James translators translated the Hebrew words—bll, chrm, cherem—into curse, doom, destroy, exterminate, confound, forfeit, and defile.

These senses connote the terrible side of the double-edged sword that Jesus yields. It protects the obedient on the right side and destroys the wicked on the left side. Most of these senses seek transitive action against evil. However, the Lord must sanction the curse or destruction.

For example, the Lord flooded the earth in order to destroy the wicked because “all flesh had corrupted its way upon the earth” (Moses 8:29).

The Lord commanded Saul to destroy the Philistines and all their livestock. Saul and his army failed to destroy all the cattle; thus, Saul lost his position as the anointed king of Israel (1 Sam. 15).

Some carried destruction too far: Jephthah had promised to God an offering of the first animate object he saw upon returning from his victory. He rashly sacrificed his daughter. (see Judges 11 and “Jephthah” Bible Dictionary).


In biblical times, the Jews anointed their kings upon coronation. The King James translators painted these kings’ portraits through their word choice. Such words include consecrate, crown, appoint, dedicate, confirm, and accept. The Greek root enkainízó translated into consecrate and dedicate. The Hebrew roots are chnkh, chrm, dshn, ml’, nzr, and qdhsh.

First, the prophet appointed a candidate to be king; second, the prophet confirmed the crown upon his head in the act of consecration and dedication; finally, the Lord accepted the prophet’s choice.

Hence forward, the Lord has consecrated the king to righteously serve the people. These earthly kings account for their actions to the King of Righteousness. Once Jesus reigned as the Prince of Peace, then Heavenly Father consecrated Jesus as the King of all Righteousness. He serves his people through the ultimate sacrifice, or atonement.

In return, we consecrate our lives through glorifying God. Christians across the world consecrate their lives when they partake of the Lord's Supper (communion, sacrament; see ml').

Similarly, saints gather inside the temple and consecrate our whole selves to God. The temples and chapels are referred to anciently as qdhsh that is translated as a sacred place or thing. In these sacred places, we separate from the world, forfeit our sins, devote our lives to God, promise to fulfill our covenants, and accept the terms (See nzr, chrm, ml’, and dshn). Our end goal is to be like God—perfect (See téleios).

Semantically, the instruments of ‘anoint’ include ointment, oil, myrrh, confection, perfumed oil, and paint. The roots of these instruments are mėshach, mishchāh, rōqach, shmn, tshr, mýron, and élaion. These instruments serve for healing or cleansing wounds, providing or making pleasure, and anointing or consecrating an object or person.

Jesus received oil, myrrh, and perfumed oil as gifts. Mary rubbed Jesus’ feet with oil; the wise men gave Jesus myrrh; Mary Magdalene and others anointed Christ’s lifeless body with perfumed oil. Through these instrumental gifts, Mary, the wise men, and Mary Magdalene consecrated their time and possessions to the Savior.

To Be Fat

An interesting translation, to be fat, seems strange in our obsessive culture about weight. However, ancient persons desired fat to enable their survival. To be fat represented wealth and health.

Symbolically, Jesus instructed us to eat his flesh and drink his blood. Our spirits need to become fat from Jesus’ teachings and atonement. Christ is called the Bread of Life. Like manna from heaven, we ingest the bread in order to make it part of our body; likewise, we symbolically eat from the Bread of Life in order to become like him.

Fishers of Men

Christ called his Apostles to be fishers of men. Figuratively, they fished with a net to gather people to Christ. Cherem means a literal and figurative net. Today, Christians and their missionaries cast out nets to bring people to Christ.

The KJV Translators Consecration

The King James translators truly consecrated their time and talents to create such a masterpiece like the King James Bible. The Bishop of Bancroft appointed them to the positions and committees. King James approved and accepted the large undertaking. The translation committees reached for perfection as a whole. The fruit of this effort is still ripe to this day. Further translations have never completely replaced the King James Bible. It is still a powerful influence across the world.

The translation of ‘anoint’ illustrates the inspiration the translators received. They chose poignant words to portray ‘anoint,’ effectively painting the Anointed One. The metaphors multiply: they apply to each individual seeking to devote him or herself to God. By studying the King James Bible we can come closer to God. It contains much of the everlasting gospel.


Butterworth, Charles C. The literary lineage of the King James Bible, 1340-1611  (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1941).

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the. The Scriptures: Authorized Version Including the Official Study Aids. CD-ROM. 1.1 ed. Intellectual Reserve, Inc., 2005.

Craigie, W. A. “The English versions (to Wyclif).” The Bible in its Ancient and English Versions. Ed. H. Wheeler Robinson. Oxford: Clarendon, 1940. 135-138.

Daiches, David. The King James Version of the English Bible. (Chicago: the University of Chicago Press, 1941).

Sheahan, J. F. The English in English Bibles: Rhemes 1582; Authorized 1611; Revised 1881; St. Matthew 1-14. (Poughkeepsie, NY: Columbus Institute).
Full text of original

Worth, Roland H. Church, Monarch, and Bible in Sixteenth Century England: the Political Context of Biblical Translation. (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2000).


Hebrew Dictionary of ‘Anoint’

An adaptation from the Transliterated Hebrew Strong Dictionary in LDS Scriptures

Lexeme: bēn
Senses: a son, figurative extension to grandson, nation
Translation: [Lev-]ite, [anoint-]ed one, appointed to, son, +firstborn, worthy, +afflicted, +lamb, (+) man, +spark
Reference: Zechariah 4:14

Lexeme: bll
Senses: to overflow (specifically with oil); implies to mix
Translation: anoint, confound, X fade, mingle, mix (self), temper
Reference: Psalms 92:10

Lexeme: chnk’
Senses: properly to narrow; figuratively to initiate or discipline
Translation: dedicate, train up

Lexeme: chănukkā’
Senses: consecration
Translation: dedication
Reference: Deuteronomy 20:5

Lexeme: chănukkāh
Senses: initiation, consecration
Translation: dedicating (-tion)
Reference: Deuteronomy 20:5

Lexeme: chrm
Senses: to seclude; specifically (by a ban) to devote to religious uses (especially destruction)
Translation: make accursed, consecrate, (utterly) destroy, devote, forfeit
Reference: Micah 4:13

Lexeme: chērem, cherem
Senses: physically (as shutting in) a net; usually a doomed object; abstractly extermination
Translation: curse, dedicated thing, (appointed to) utter destruction, devoted (thing), net
References: Ezekiel 24:29; (Zechariah 14:11)  

Lexeme: dshn
Senses: to be fat, transitive to fatten; specifically to anoint; figuratively to satisfy; to remove (fat) ashes (of sacrifices)
Translation: accept, anoint, take away the (receive) ashes (from), make (wax) fat
Reference: Psalms 23:5

Lexeme: mshch
Senses: to rub with oil, to anoint; by implication to consecrate; also to paint
Translation: anoint, paint
Reference: Jeremiah 22:14 (paint)

Lexeme: māshîach
Senses: anointed; usually a consecrated person (as a king, priest, or saint); specifically the Messiah
Translation: anointed, Messiah
Reference: Leviticus 4:3; Samuel 24:6

Lexeme: mėshach (Chaldean)
Senses: oil
Translation: oil
Reference: Ezra 6:9

Lexeme: mimshāch
Senses: outspread (i.e. with outstretched wings); from mshch in the sense of expansion
Translation: anointed
Reference: Ezekiel 28:14

Lexeme: mishchāh or moshchāh
Senses: unction (the act); by implication a consecratory gift
Translation: (to be) anointed (-ing), ointment
Reference: Exodus 30:25

Lexeme: ml’ or mālā’
Senses: to fill or (intransitively) be full of literally and figuratively
KJV accomplish, confirm, + consecrate, be at an end, fill, fulfill, [over-] flow, full, fullness, furnish, gather (selves, together), presume, replenish, satisfy, set
References: Leviticus 21:10; (Esther 7:5)

Lexeme: millu’ or millû’îm
Senses: a fulfilling, or consecration (also concretely a dedicatory sacrifice)
Translation: consecration, be set
Reference: Exodus 29:22

Lexeme: nzr
Senses: to hold aloof, abstain; to set apart (to sacred purposes), devote
Translation: consecrate, separate (-ing, self)

Lexeme: nezer or nēzer
Senses: properly something set apart, abstractly dedication (of a priest of Nazirite); concretely unshorn locks; also by implication a chaplet, especially of royalty
Translation: consecration, crown, hair, separation
Reference: Numbers 6:7

Lexeme: qdhsh
Senses: to be, causatively make, pronounce or observe as; clean ceremonially or morally
Translation: appoint, bid, consecrate, dedicate, defile, hallow, keep, prepare, proclaim, purify, sanctify
Reference: Exodus 28:3

Lexeme: qōdhesh
Senses: a sacred place or thing; rarely abstractly sanctity
Translation: consecrated, dedicated, or hallowed thing, holiness, holy, saint, sanctuary
References: Psalms 89:20; Joshua 6:19

Lexeme: rōqach
Sense: an aromatic
Translation: confection, ointment
Reference: Exodus 30:25

Lexeme: shmn
Senses: to shine, by analogy be (causatively make) oily or gross
Translation: become (make, wax) fat
Reference: Deuteronomy 8:8

Lexeme: shemen
Senses: grease, especially liquid (as from the olive, often perfumed); figuratively richness
Translation: anointing, X fat (things), X fruitful, oil ([-ed]), ointment, olive
Reference: Leviticus 10:7

Lexeme: svkh
Senses: properly to smear over (with oil), anoint
Translation: anoint (self)
References: Deuteronomy 28:40; Ruth 3:3

Lexeme: tshr
Senses: to glisten; to press out oil
Translation: make oil
Reference: Job 24:11

Lexeme: yitshār
Senses: oil (as producing light); figuratively anointing
Translation: + anointed, oil
References: Zechariah 4:14; Numbers 18:12 (oil)

Lexeme: zayith
Senses: an olive (as yielding illuminating oil), the tree, the branch or the berry
Translation: olive (tree, yard), Olivet
Reference: Deuteronomy 8:8

Greek Dictionary of ‘Anoint’

An adaptation from the Transliterated Greek Strong Dictionary from LDS Scriptures

Lexeme: aleíphō
Senses: to oil (with perfume)
Translation: anoint
Reference: Matthew 6:17

Lexeme: chríō
Senses: to smear or rub with oil, implies to consecrate to an office or religious service
Translation: anoint
Reference: Luke 4:18

Lexeme: chrísma
Senses: an unguent or smearing, figuratively the endowment of the Holy Spirit; “chrism”
Translation: anointing, unction
Reference: 1 John 2:20

Lexeme: Christós
Senses: anointed, an epithet of Jesus
Translation: Christ

Lexeme: epichríó
Sense: to smear over
Translation: anoint
Reference: John 9:6

Lexeme: elaía
Sense: an olive (the tree or the fruit)
Translation: olive (berry, tree)
Reference: (Luke 7:46)

Lexeme: élaion
Sense: olive oil
Translation: oil
Reference: Matthew 25:3

Lexeme: enkaínia
Senses: innovatives, specifically renewal of religious services after the Antiochian interruption
Translation: dedication
Reference: (Hebrews 10:20)

Lexeme: enkainízó
Senses: to renew, inaugurate
Translation: consecrate, dedicate
Reference: Hebrews 10:20

Lexeme: mýron
Senses: “myrrh,” perfumed oil
Translation: ointment
Reference: Matthew 26:7

Lexeme: myrízó
Senses: to apply (perfumed) unguent to
Translation: anoint
Reference: Mark 14:8

Lexeme: téleios
Senses: complete; completeness
Translation: of full age, man, perfect
Note: complete, finished, fully developed
Reference: (Hebrews 7:8)

Lexeme: teleióō
Senses: to complete, accomplish, or figuratively consummate in character
Translation: consecrate, finish, fulfill, (make) perfect
Reference: Hebrews 7:28